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Business Enterprise Research and Development (BERD)

The purpose of the R&D statistics of the enterprise sector is to analyse the scope of research and experimental development undertaken within the sector. This is carried out by estimating the resources used in the area, measured in R&D-expenditure and R&D-personnel broken down on industry, size class and the regional level. The survey is conducted in accordance with OECDs guidelines for R&D statistics as described in the Frascati Manual. The Danish data are comparable with the data of other OECD- and EU-countries.

Statistical presentation

The purpose of the R&D statistics is to present the scope of research and experimental development undertaken within the Danish business sector. The aim is to secure detailed statistical information on the R&D activities.

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Statistical processing

The statistics is based on a survey sample of approx. 3.600 units weighted to a frame of approx 20.000 enterprises. The statistics is compiled in one joined questionnaire which covers both the R&D domain and the innovation statistics. An extensive validation process of the data is carried out. One part of the validations is integrated in the data collection in the dynamic web-questionnaire, another part is carried out after the data collection using micro- and macro validation techniques.

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Statistics have users in ministry of science, business organizations, researchers, business and students. Statistics are used in publications on research and in international comparisons. R&D statistics is describing the knowledge society. Part of the EU's Innovations Union Scoreboard. Micro-data is available for research through Research Service at Statistics Denmark.

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Accuracy and reliability

To minimize errors the questionnaires are supported with guidelines and instructions. However some data reports are not error-free and may reflect misinterpretations from the respondents which can lead to certain errors.

Coefficients of variance (CV) have been compiled for a range of central indicators.

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Timeliness and punctuality

The statistics is published no later than 12 months after the end of the reference year. Statistics with reference year 2022 was published 14. December 2023.

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The statistics is compiled according to the guidelines of the Frascati Manual and the EU Regulation. There are no other comparable Danish R&D-statistics, but the Danish statistics is comparable to the R&D statistics from other EU-member states and OECD-countries. The statistics is from 2007-2016 comparable. There was a break in time series from 2016 to 2017. From 2017-2021 the statistics is comparable.

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Accessibility and clarity

The statistics are published in Focus On Statistics Denmark (Nyt fra Danmarks Statistik) and are available from Statistics Denmark's website at and from the database StatBank Denmark ( The statistics can also be found at the Eurostat databases (under the STI-domain). For the years 2012-2020 Statistics Denmark published a more extensive publication concerning R&D and innovation: "Innovation og Forskning 2020" (Innovation and research 2020).The publication is available (Danish only) on

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