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Science, Technology and Culture, Business Statistics
Anne-Sofie Dam Bjørkman
+45 3917 3396

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Business Enterprise Research and Development (BERD)

The purpose of the R&D statistics is to present the scope of research and experimental development undertaken within the Danish business sector. The aim is to secure detailed statistical information on the R&D activities.

Data description

The total intramural expenditure is often used as an economic indicator to gauge the national innovation systems. The R&D expenditures are used as input to the "3 per cent objective", the EU goal of spending 3 per cent of GDP on R&D. 2 per cent in the business enterprise sector and 1 per cent in the Government-, Higher Education, and Private-Non-Profit sectors. R&D expenditure is also an indicator used for the Innovation Union Scoreboard (IUS). Besides R&D expenditure information on R&D activities are published as numbers of R&D personnel and broken down on regions, size class and industry.

The statistics are compiled in accordance with definitions and guidelines in the OECD's Frascati Manual.

The following indicators are measured:

  • intramural R&D-expenditure
  • Extramural R&D-expenditure
  • Number of employees engaged in research and development (both headcounts and fulltime equivalents)

Additional variables in odd years - R&D personnel head counts and full time equivalent distributed by sex - intramural R&D expenditure by source of funds - extramural R&D expenditure by source of funds - R&D expenditures distributed - by area - by Field of Science - by type of R & D - income from R&D service - Cooperation in R&D activities - Sales of R&D services - Budget for the following year as a voluntary question

The statistics are broken down on industry (Nace rev.2), size class and regions.

Classification system

Industry (NACE rev.2), Size class based on number of employees (in FTE).

Size class of enterprise, based on number of full-time equivalents by the following size classes:

  • 10-49 full-time employees
  • 50-249 full-time employees
  • 250(+) full-time employees

Type of enterprise

  • Without R&D in foreign affiliates
  • With R&D in foreign affiliates

Type of staff

  • Researchers
  • Other R&D-personnel including technicians

Geographically the statistics is distributed by regions.

Sector coverage

The statistics covers all R&D performing units in the business enterprise sector or enterprises from other sectors acting under market conditions. Also enterprises from the enterprise sector not acting under market conditions are allocated to the Private-Non-Profit sector.

Statistical concepts and definitions

Research and Development: Research and experimental development (R&D) comprise creative and systematic work undertaken in order to increase the stock of knowledge – including knowledge of humankind, culture and society – and to devise new applications of available knowledge.

The five criteria for identifying R&D: To be aimed at new findings (novel) To be based on original, not obvious, concepts and hypotheses (creative) To be uncertain about the final outcome (uncertain) To be planned and budgeted (systematic) To lead to results that could be possibly reproduced (transferable and/or reproducible) There are three types of R&D: 1) Basic research is experimental or theoretical work undertaken primarily to acquire new knowledge of the underlying foundation of phenomena and observable facts, without any particular application or use in view. 2) Applied research is original investigation undertaken in order to acquire new knowledge. It is, however, directed primarily towards a specific practical aim or objective. 3)Experimental development is systematic work, drawing on existing knowledge gained from research and/or practical experience, which is directed to producing new materials, products or devices, to installing new processes, systems and services, or to improving substantially those already produced or installed.

Statistical unit

The statistical unit is the enterprise.

Statistical population

The survey frame is based on a extract from the National Business Register.

Reference area

The survey covers Denmark.

Time coverage


Base period

Not relevant for these statistics.

Unit of measure

R&D-expenditures are in 1000 DKK. R&D-personnel in headcount (HC) and full time equivalents (FTE).

Reference period

The statistics is compiled annually.

Frequency of dissemination

Yearly. The number of variables varies between even years (overall variables only) and odd years (overall variables supplemented with detailed information).

Legal acts and other agreements

From 2007 the statistics is mandatory and produced in accordance with section 8 of the Act on Statistics Denmark (Consolidated act No 599 of 22 June 2000. Up to and including the year 2006 the survey was voluntary. Data is collected in accordance with Decision No 1608/2003/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 July 2003 concerning the production and development of Community statistics on science and technology and Commission Regulation (EC) No 995/2012 implementing Decision No 1608/2003/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards statistics on science and technology.

Cost and burden

  • The estimated response burden is 3,9 million DKK.


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