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Accuracy and reliability

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Science, Technology and Culture, Business Statistics
Anne-Sofie Dam Bjørkman
+45 3917 3396

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Business Enterprise Research and Development (BERD)

To minimize errors the questionnaires are supported with guidelines and instructions. However some data reports are not error-free and may reflect misinterpretations from the respondents which can lead to certain errors.

Coefficients of variance (CV) have been compiled for a range of central indicators.

Overall accuracy

As the survey is based on a sample, uncertainty is attached to all the figures in form of random variation.

Sampling error

Estimate of CV for 2021

  • expenditures R&D 1,3 pct.
  • number of FTE concerning R&D 1,6 pct.

Non-sampling error

Non-sampling error primarily relate to unit not response and measurement errors. Unit not response is limited for this statistic, as the response rate in the survey is generally high - about 97 percent. R & D statistics cover a complex area, characterized by concepts that can be defined in theory, but in practice it may be difficult to make a clear separation, for example. between R & D activities and other innovation activities. To address understanding problems for the reporting of the concepts of research, development work and innovation activities, targeted efforts have been made to guide the reporting. It should be mentioned that compared to reducing the significance of measurement errors, it is considered an advantage to compare the individual enterprises' reports for R & D and innovation activities.

Quality management

Statistics Denmark follows the recommendations on organisation and management of quality given in the Code of Practice for European Statistics (CoP) and the implementation guidelines given in the Quality Assurance Framework of the European Statistical System (QAF). A Working Group on Quality and a central quality assurance function have been established to continuously carry through control of products and processes.

Quality assurance

Statistics Denmark follows the principles in the Code of Practice for European Statistics (CoP) and uses the Quality Assurance Framework of the European Statistical System (QAF) for the implementation of the principles. This involves continuous decentralized and central control of products and processes based on documentation following international standards. The central quality assurance function reports to the Working Group on Quality. Reports include suggestions for improvement that are assessed, decided and subsequently implemented.

Quality assessment

As part of the general quality assessment a quality manual has been published for the statistical domains of Business Enterprise R&D and innovation Statistics. The manual - which is only in Danish - can be downloaded at From 2009 the latest published statistics is regarded as not final - this is to secure that experiences and information from the following reference year are used to validate the data. The survey has - as all surveys based on samples - uncertainty attached to all the figures in form of random variation.

Data revision - policy

Statistics Denmark revises published figures in accordance with the Revision Policy for Statistics Denmark. The common procedures and principles of the Revision Policy are for some statistics supplemented by a specific revision practice.

Data revision practice

The 2022 statistics is published as preliminary numbers. The reference years 2007-2021 are produced as final statistics. At the publication of the 2023 statistics the 2022 statistics will be published as final data.