Contact infoStatistics Denmark, Short Term Statistics
Simon B. Halifax
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The Services Sector survey was launched in May 2011 by Statistics Denmark. Data is comparable over time by comparing with similar tendency survey data up until April 2011 provided by the EC Business and Consumer Surveys programme and managed by Directorate-Generale for Economic and Financial Affairs, DG ECFIN.
Comparability - geographical
The statistics is carried out in collaboration with the EU-commission, and the same survey is carried out in other EU-countries. Please refer to DG ECFIN.
Comparability over time
The Services Sector survey was launched in May 2011 by Statistics Denmark. Data is comparable over time with similar tendency survey data up until April 2011 provided by the EC Business and Consumer Surveys programme and managed by Directorate-Generale for Economic and Financial Affairs, DG ECFIN.
As of March 2013 the order of answer options to the question about production limitations is changed. Now the answer "no limitations" is the last option to check instead of the first, as it was before. This seems not to have led to any significant data break.
As of July 2013 the composite short-term indicator is no longer seasonally adjusted directly, however indirectly, where the three under lying indicators, each are seasonally adjusted before averaging into the composite.
As of August 2014 some phrasings in the questionnaire have been revised in order to harmonize fully to the guidelines of DG ECFIN. Previous, questions of this type: "Regarding Turnover, how was the development the last 3 month (e.g. May-July) as compared to the previous 3 month (e.g. February-April)? please tick either less; unchanged or bigger". Now there are no comparison between two 3-month periods, and instead is asked: "How has your Turnover developed over the past 3 month? please tick either decreased, unchanged or increased" The results are believed to be the same, and no data break has been detected. The same change has been made for questions concerning the future development over the next 3 month.
Economic trends in service sector ( 2000-2011, discontinued). Up until July 2011 Statistics Denmark conducted independently a Services Survey, which is comparable to the present Services Survey regarding variables covered in both surveys. And though the composition of the Composite Confidence indicator is not the same, they are still comparable. Data is published in the http://www.statbank.dk; choose English language and look under "Archive" for the tables KSERV1-KSERV3 og KSERV1x-KSERV3x. Methodologically the two surveys are identical. In the following is listed information and specific conditions characterizing the now discontinued survey:
Purpose and History. The economic trends survey for the service sector provides a quick and up-to-date overview of the actual conditions and expectations within selected activities in the service sector. Statistics Denmark established the economic trends survey for the service sector in April 2000. The survey is conducted monthly and presented in accordance with corresponding surveys in the other EU Member States. The establishment of the survey should be seen in relation to the information requirements in stage three of the EMU as specified by the Economic and Financial Committee (EFC). The economic trends survey follows the corresponding surveys for industry and building and construction activities.
Statistical Concepts. The population on which the economic trends survey is based is limited to private businesses within selected lines of activity in the service sector, as set out in the Danish Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities 2007, cf. list below:
Hotels and other overnights
- 551010 -Hotels
- 551020 -Conference centres and course facilities
- 552000 -Holiday and other short-saty accomodation
- 553000 -Recreational vehicle parks, trailer parks and camping grounds
- 683120 -Housing agencies, letting of holiday homes, etc.
- 799000 -Other reservation service and related activities
- 561010 -Restaurants
Travel agencies and Tour operators
- 791100 -Travel agency activities
- 791200 -Tour operator activities
Freight transport by road and Freight forwarders
- 494100 -Freight transport by road
- 494200 -Removal services
- 522920 -Freight forwarders
- 771100 -Renting and leasing of cars and other light motor vehicles
- 771200 -Renting and leasing of trucks
- 772100 -Renting and leasing of recreational and sport goods
- 772200 -Renting of video tapes and disks
- 772900 -Renting and leasing of other personal and household goods
- 773200 -Renting and leasing og construction and civil engeneering machinery and equipment
- 773300 -Renting and leasing og office machinery and equipment (including computers)
- 773900 -Renting and leasing of other machinery, equipment and tangible goods n.e.c.
- 331200 -Repair of machinery
- 581100 -Book publishing
- 581200 -Publishing of directories and mailing lists
- 581300 -Publishing og newspapers
- 581410 -Publishing og journals and periodicals
- 581900 -Other publishing activities
- 582100 -Publishing of computer games
- 582900 -Other software publishing
- 592000 -Sound recording and music publishing activities
- 620100 -Computer programming activities
- 620200 -Computer consultancy activities
- 620300 -Computer facilities mnagement activities
- 620900 -Other information technology service activities
- 631100 Data processing, hosting and other related activities
- 631200 -Web portals
- 951100 -Repair og computers and peripheral equipment
Business service in other respects
- 691000 -Legal activities
- 692000 -Accounting, bookkeeping and auditing activities; tax consultancy
- 711100 -Architectural activities
- 711210 -Consulting engineering activities witin construction
- 731110 -Advertising agencies
- 732000 -Market research and public opinion polling
- 781000 -Activities og employment placement agencies
- 782000 Temporary employment agency activities
- 783000 -Other human resources provision
- 821100 -Combined office administrative servive activities
- 821900 -Photocopying, document preparation and other specialised office support activities
- 823000 - Organisation of conventions and trade shows
The sample units are enterprises in the form of legal units. Approximately 2,050 enterprises are included in the sample, representing about 70 per cent of the total number of full-time employees in the selected sectors. Enterprises with up to nine full-time employees are excluded from the survey, while enterprises with 10-99 full-time employees are selected proportionally according to the average number of full-time employees during the most recent four quarters. All enterprises with 100 full-time employees or more are included in the survey.
Calculation: The enterprises' responses are weighted according to the average number of full-time employees in the most recent four quarters. The number of full-time employees is updated quarterly. Hereafter, the responses are enumerated to the number of full-time employees of the total population. The values of the enterprises' responses are given in the form of relative figures. For example 30 per cent higher, 50 per cent unchanged and 15 per cent lower for the turnover of the period in question compared with the previous period means that enterprises representing 35 per cent of the full-time employees have reported higher turnover figures, whereas enterprises representing 15 per cent of the full-time employees have reported lower turnover figures. The difference between the percentage figures for "higher" and "lower" is called net figures, and must be interpreted as the trend. A net figure of +20 per cent does not indicate an expected growth of 20 per cent. Instead the figure indicates that an increase in turnover (net) is expected in enterprises representing 20 per cent of the total number of full-time employees in the service sector.
The composite business indicator indicates expectations for the coming three-month period in terms of employment and turnover in the service sector. The monthly indicator is seasonally adjusted after three years, when sufficient data are available. That means that the first indicator have been seasonally adjusted for May 2003.
The statistics are published for seven sectors:
- Hotels and other overnights
- Travel agencies and Tour operators
- Freight transport by road and Freight forwarders
- Computer business
- Business service in other respects
Furthermore, the statistics are distributed over three main fields: tourism, transport and business activities and three groups: 10-19 full-time employees, 20-99 full-time employees and 100 full-time employees or more.
Variables. It is a characteristic feature of the method used that the management of the responding enterprises should be able to answer the questions. The questions concern an assessment of actual conditions during the past three months and expectations of the forthcoming three months in terms of the development in the employment and turnover. There are three possible answers to these questions: 'worse', 'unchanged' and 'better'. There is also a question inviting an assessment of the current general business climate, the answers are: 'worse', 'satisfactory' and 'good'.
Sources of inaccuracy. The basis of the economic trends survey for the service sector is a sample including 2,050 enterprises in the selected sectors. The sample in 2005 comprises only enterprises with ten or more full-time employees according to the average number of full-time employees in the 2005 (calculated on the basis of payments to the Danish Labour Market Supplementary Pension Fund). The sample is expected to be renewed annually. All enterprises with 100 or more full-time employees are included in the survey, while enterprises with 10-99 full-time employees are selected proportionally according to the average number of full-time employees. The questionnaires received are checked only to establish whether all questions have been answered, as the questionnaire essentially involves ticking multiple-choice questions.
Basic material: Storage and usability. The monthly responses from the individual enterprises are stored with the following information:
- JURNR (identification)
- Sector (Danish Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities 2007)
- Telephone number
- Employment (the average number of full-time employees calculated from the enterprise's payments into the Labour Market Supplementary Pension Fund
- Assessment of the current general business climate
- The actual conditions of turnover in the past 3 months
- The actual conditions of employment in the past 3 months
- The expectations of turnover in the forthcoming 3 months
- The expectations of employment in the forthcoming 3 months
Coherence - cross domain
Data from the Services Sector survey supplements the other short-term statistics relating to this area. Similar surveys are conducted by the other EU member states through the EC Business and Consumer Surveys programme managed by Directorate-Generale for Economic and Financial Affairs (DG ECFIN).
Coherence - internal
The data set of the survey is consistent.