Accuracy and reliability
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There is an uncertainty connected to the compilation of Air Emission Accounts as a combination of scientific assumptions and calculations have to be made. Uncertainty inherited in the source data is transferred to the Air Emission Accounts. However, conceptually consistent and over time uniform treatment of source data contribute to increasing the certainty of data.
There is variability in accuracy for the emissions to air for different industries and for types of air emissions. The uncertainty reflects, inter alia, the uncertainty about the allocation of energy by industries, given that the starting point for calculations of emissions is the energy accounts (cf. the documentation of statistics for the Danish energy accounts). Add to this variability in the technical emission factors for the various industries as well as a substantial variability related to the non-energy related emissions.
The calculations of the climate footprint constitute Statistics Denmark's first attempt and may therefore be changed. A number of assumptions and estimations are made in the calculations, and there is considerable uncertainty associated with the calculations, especially regarding the emissions abroad. The EXIOBASE database is in practice a combination of official statistics, projections and balancing. The calculations of the climate footprint are therefore to be regarded as experimental statistics.
Not relevant for these statistics.
Uncertainty in the emission accounts are connected to the uncertainties in the source data. Detailed information regarding emission coefficients and emission levels can be found in Denmark's National Inventory Report 2022.
Statistics Denmark follows the recommendations on organisation and management of quality given in the Code of Practice for European Statistics (CoP) and the implementation guidelines given in the Quality Assurance Framework of the European Statistical System (QAF). A Working Group on Quality and a central quality assurance function have been established to continuously carry through control of products and processes.
Statistics Denmark follows the principles in the Code of Practice for European Statistics (CoP) and uses the Quality Assurance Framework of the European Statistical System (QAF) for the implementation of the principles. This involves continuous decentralized and central control of products and processes based on documentation following international standards. The central quality assurance function reports to the Working Group on Quality. Reports include suggestions for improvement that are assessed, decided and subsequently implemented.
No measurements of quality has been done, however the quality of the statistics is seen as best possible, given the resources available for the compilation of accounts. Air Emission Account have the scope and the degree of detail that is on the same level as other countries, such as Netherlands, Sweden and Norway. Accounts are compiled in accordance with recommendations and quality standards provided by UN and Eurostat.
Data revision - policy
Statistics Denmark revises published figures in accordance with the Revision Policy for Statistics Denmark. The common procedures and principles of the Revision Policy are for some statistics supplemented by a specific revision practice.
Data revision practice
The time series is fully revised annually e.g. as a consequence of revised energy accounts and revised submissions to UNECE or UNFCCC as well as with improvement of methodologies.
Major revisions in 2022:
- Emissions from Danish shipping abroad have been adjusted upwards
- Methane from agriculture increased during the whole time series _ Nitrous oxide from agriculture increased during the whole time series
- NMVOC from agriculture revised during the whole time series
- LULUCF revised during the whole time series
- Emissions from mobile combustion revised
The calculation of the climate footprint is experimental statistics and is revised on an ongoing basis.