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Accuracy and reliability

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National Accounts, Economic Statistics
Peter Rørmose Jensen
+45 39 17 38 62

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Multiplier Tables

The multipliers are the result of model calculations, which are based on national accounting statistics and input-output tables. In each section, polls and adjustments are made under assumptions, which together mean that the calculation process builds some uncertainty about the figures. At the most detailed level, therefore, one can not necessarily expect the results to be accurate representations of reality. Conclusions from the tables should be drawn with some caution, taking account of the uncertainties that may arise in the various stages of the process.

Overall accuracy

There is a certain degree of uncertainty associated with the calculation of the figures, primarily because values are calculated and not observed. There are uncertainties related to the sources used in the national accounts, the assumptions made in the compilation of the national accounts and those made in the compilation of the input-output tables. The national accounts are a compilation of a wide range of microeconomic sources, and in order to establish consistent national accounts, some reconciliation of the figures may be necessary, which may contribute to a certain deviation from the observed data. However, it can be said that the conceptually consistent and over time uniform processing of the sources, however, contributes to a reduction in the uncertainty of the national accounts figures. In particular, the compilation of the primary sources in a single system means that in many cases errors are not revealed, which are thus not reflected in the final national accounts or input-output tables. The transformation from national accounts to input-output tables necessitates some assumptions that are best possible from international recommendations, but which may give some imbalance in the results in some areas. Conclusions, especially in the most detailed areas, should be drawn from these tables with some caution.

Sampling error

Not relevant for this statistics.

Non-sampling error

The overall effect of assumptions in the compilation of the input-output tables and the model calculation of the multipliers means that at the most detailed level, expect the results to be subject to uncertainty. Uncertainty can arise in connection with model assumptions, methods, and the data used. Conclusions should be drawn from these tables with some caution.

Quality management

Statistics Denmark follows the recommendations on organisation and management of quality given in the Code of Practice for European Statistics (CoP) and the implementation guidelines given in the Quality Assurance Framework of the European Statistical System (QAF). A Working Group on Quality and a central quality assurance function have been established to continuously carry through control of products and processes.

Quality assurance

Statistics Denmark follows the principles in the Code of Practice for European Statistics (CoP) and uses the Quality Assurance Framework of the European Statistical System (QAF) for the implementation of the principles. This involves continuous decentralized and central control of products and processes based on documentation following international standards. The central quality assurance function reports to the Working Group on Quality. Reports include suggestions for improvement that are assessed, decided and subsequently implemented.

Quality assessment

The quality of the applied source statistics input-output tables is crucial for the quality of the multiplier tables.

Input-output tables are based directly on the national accounts product balance sheet, which is the foundation of the building of the Danish national accounts. An assessment of the reliability of the national accounts figures is sought to be maintained by conducting the reconciliation of the national accounts at a very detailed level, just the core variable GDP is based on both the production and income side. The compilation of the national accounts and the use of data and methods is continuously monitored by the EU. The layout of the input-output tables is based on international recommendations in the United Nations manuals and is fully integrated with the national accounts.

The quality of the Danish national accounts is assessed in the following report: Quality Report, Denmark 2018

The compilation of multipliers on top of input-output tables adds another dimension of uncertainty to its source statistics, since it is a model calculation based on certain assumptions. The quality is good when it comes to punctuality and audit policy.

Data revision - policy

Statistics Denmark revises published figures in accordance with the Revision Policy for Statistics Denmark. The common procedures and principles of the Revision Policy are for some statistics supplemented by a specific revision practice.

Data revision practice

Multipliers are calculated on the basis of input-output tables for the national accounts' most recent final year. Thus, as a starting point, there will be no revisions. The only possible exception is if it should been found necessary to revise the national accounts. According to the schedule this is planned to take place in 2024 next time and after that in a 5-10 years interval.