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Food Industries, Business Statistics
Martin Lundø
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Harvest of Cereals etc.

The harvest of cereals, etc. is an annual estimate of the Danish harvest of grain, root crops and roughage in area (1000 hectares), average yield (100 kg per hectare) and production (million kg). The statistics are calculated by crops and broken down by provinces.

Data description

** The harvest of cereals etc **

Calculation of the Danish grain harvest based on reports from farmers. Final harvest statistics go back to 1875. In addition the total production and use of straw is measured.

Crops covered: winter wheat, -barley, -raps, spring wheat, barley, rape, rye, oats, triticale, cereals, field peas, horse beans and mixed cereals.

Annual statistics on straw has been produced since 1970, and straw application since 1972.

The statistics on harvest of cereals etc. is first and foremost a production inventory.

Includes harvest of winter wheat, winter barley, winter rape, wheat, barley, rape, rye, oats, triticale, cereals, field peas and mixed crops. For each crop, questions are asked on arable land, total yield (hekto kilo), average yield (hekto kilo / hectare) and water percent if the production does not appear in dried weight. Water percentage is used to calculate standard moisture content (15 per cent for cereals and peas and 9 per cent for rape).

Harvest of grain maize and corn cob mix is included in the statistics from 2011.

Statistics on straw show the production and use of straw by the above-mentioned crops. Output is measured as a relation between yield (grain, rape and peas) and expected straw yield, while the use of straw is based on questionnaire information on the distribution of straw areas used for firing, for fodder, for other purposes.

From 2006 the results are compiled for the new administrative structure in Denmark (regions). Regions are divided on specific agricultural land (sub-divisions of regions).

** Harvest of roughage **

Includes harvest of sugar beet, potatoes and roughage plus grain and corn harvested for silage or green fodder.

Yields per hectare are collected from SEGES for potatoes, from Danish association of sugar beets farmers for sugar beets whereas fodder crops are collected from the accounts statistics for agriculture.

This information on yields is combined with areas from IACS (Farmer's applications for crop subsidies).

** Seeds**

Results for seeds (areas, yields per hectare and total production) are compiled for about 20 types. Yield is measured in purified quantity. The statistics are based on data from Tystoftefonden on crop land (administrative information) and production (yield estimates). Seeds are used for the calculation of BFI for agriculture.

Classification system

** Geographical breakdown **

The harvest of cereals etc. is divided by Agricultural provinces.

** Crops **

All crops follow the EU classifications in "Eurostat Handbook for Annual Crop Statistics".

Sector coverage

The agricultural sector.

Statistical concepts and definitions

Area for application : Agricultural areas comprised by application for direct support to the Agency of Agriculture. Each area specifies a crop.

Mixed crops: Mixture of crops sown in the same field, eg. of cereals and/or legumes.

Area under cultivation : Agricultural areas where a given crop is cultivated. The crop will most often correspond to that specified in the area for application, but may differ as a result of a changed cultivation plan.

Aftermath: Harvesting of small crops (grass or clover, etc.) in fields where the same or another crop has previously been harvested. The area is also included under the first crop (typically grain).

Ensiling: Method for preserving fodder from whole grains, grass or other green fodder.

Fodder unit : Measure of energy content in crops that can be used for fodder.

Coarse fodder: Fodder crops used more or less unprocessed for fibrous fodder. Includes Whole crop, maize for green fodder, grass, fodder turnips etc.

Straw yield : The amount of straw, calculated from the yield of the individual crops.

Whole crop/silage: Crops where the whole plant is harvested green and used for feed. Wholecrop is cut and preserved as silage or used directly.

Yield, kernel : Harvest of grain, measured by weight of the kernel.

Maize for green fodder: Maize that is harvested as a whole crop before ripening and usually ensiled for fodder.

Grain maize: Maize grown for ripening of cobs and kernels in September-October. Used for fodder.

Rotation: Alternating crops. Characteristic of areas in rotation is that tillage is harvested and carried out (plowed/harrowed). If an area is not harvested or tilled for five seasons, it is considered "permanent" (eg. grass).

Dry weight : The yield of cereals, etc. is indicated in dry weight (standard humidity). Dry weight means a water content of not more than 15 percent for cereals/peas/beans and no more than 9 percent for rape.

Winter crops : Crops harvested in autumn and harvested the following summer. Includes winter wheat, rye, triticale, winter barley and winter rape.

Spring crops : Crops that are sown in spring and harvested the same summer. Includes spring wheat, spring barley, oats and mixed seeds, corn cobs and spring rape.

Organic crops : Crops grown according to organic principles set by Danish authorities.

Statistical unit

  • Area (1000 hectare)
  • Average yield (100 kg pr hectare)
  • Production (million kilos)

Statistical population

The target population are farmers with production of the covered crops (cereals, canola, pulses, fodder crops).

Reference area


Time coverage

The statistics in their present form are generaly available from 1990. However, see 'Comparability over time' for specification.

Base period

The statistics cover harvest in the calendar year.

Unit of measure

  • Land: 1000 hectare.
  • Average yield: hectokilo per. hectare. 1 hkg = 100 kg.
  • Production: million kilo.

Reference period

Statistikken dækker høst i kalenderåret. The statistics cover harvest in the calendar year.

** The harvest of cereals, rape etc. **

The end of the harvest each year (typically in early September). In practice most crops are harvested by the end of September. However, grain maize and corn cob mix have often later harvest in November.

** Harvest of roughage **

30 Nov. in the reference year of the statistics.

The end of the harvest each year (typically medio November). In practice, most crops are harvested by the end of September. However, Grain maize and corn cob mix have often later harvest in November.

** Areas planted with winter crops **

The harvest period for the year to which the statistics refer. Data is collected the year before.

This date is usually the latest possible time of sowing.

Frequency of dissemination

The statistics are published annually.

Legal acts and other agreements

The Act on Statistics Denmark, corresponding to request in EU regulation on crop statistics, including forecasts.

Council Regulation 543/2009 relating to crop statistics and forecasts. Directive 1989/130 relating to production of straw incorporated in the Economic Accounts for Agriculture.

Cost and burden

1.1 man-years.


Additional information can be obtained from Statistics Denmark.