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National Accounts, Economic Statistics
Peter Rørmose Jensen
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Environmental Multiplier Tables

This statistics is based on two already published sources, namely the green national accounts and input-output tables. Thus, data was not collected specifically for this statistic. Certain parts of the two sources are reproduced in the tables, but the primary contribution lie in the use of an input-output model that contains both physical environmental data and economic national accounts data in the form of input-output tables. This hybrid model is used in various configurations to calculate so-called indirect (multiplier) effects.

Source data

Green National Accounts and Input-output tables for Denmark. A description of these sources can be found in

input-output tables

Energy Accounts Emission Accounts Waste Accounts Water and Waste Water

Frequency of data collection

Data is not collected from respondents specifically for this statistic. It is based on other published statistics. This is an annual statistics, but as the underlying statistics are updated a couple of time per year. New versions of the multiplier tables are therefore also updated a couple of times per year.

Data collection

Builds on already published statistics.

Data validation

The statistics are based on other statistics published by Statistics Denmark, and therefore no particular quality control has been developed of the inputs that are used as it is expected that the quality is correct at the time of receipt. Thus, in principle, it is only the method of compilation of the tables which may give rise to errors. When compiling the multiplier tables, it is ensured that all data, reproduced directly from source statistics, is the same in both statistics. Likewise, it is ensured that the multipliers have a credible size and that they evolve over time in a plausible manner.

Data compilation

The compilation of the multiplier tables starts with the preparation of the main sources, physical data from the green national accounts and the national accounts input-output data. The physical data is extracted from the internal database, which corresponds to the StatBank, but may contain unpublished data. The extract is organized into files so it can be read instantly in the data processing program that generates the final data. Supplemented with input-output data from internal sources corresponding to the published input-output tables. The multiplier tables are typically organized so that they contain

  1. A reproduction of physical data for the topic in question that is also found in the Green National Accounts

  2. A calculation of the relative ratio (coefficients) between the physical data and relevant national accounting data, e.g. total output. This is referred to as the direct effect. These coefficients can also be perceived as a kind of productivity measures, which indicates how much energy or water (measured in physical quantities) will be used to produce one unit (e.g. 1 million DKK worth of output) in each industry. These ratios are calculated in both current and previous year prices, and can then be converted into so-called chained values ​​by 2010 as the base year. When calculating coefficients in chained values, price changes are excluded from the calculation and the time series expresses the sheer quantitative changes. Therefore, if less water is used in one industry's production year by year, it is not only because the price of total output (fractional denominator) grows, but because actually less water is used per unit of volume produced.

  3. A calculation of the indirect effects - or multipliers with an input-output model. By setting up an so-called input-output model, some mathematical operations are carried out which means that you can calculate not only the water consumption in the industry in question, but also the water consumption that occurs in all industries that indirectly produce input related to production in the industry considered and at its subcontractors. The multiplier tells that if an industry is to produce 1 million DKK worth of output how much water consumption occurs in this industry and in all the industries that are indirectly activated in connection with its production. Direct and indirect water consumption (or CO2 emission) is also linked to, for example, detailed components of household consumption.


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