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Environmental Multiplier Tables

Dissemination of environmental multipliers is a service for users interested in the interaction between the environment and the economy. The multipliers connect environmental statistics with national accounts statistics at a detailed level and provides a picture of the effects that changes in economic final demand have on selected environmental variables. The environmental multipliers are aggregated measures of the total environmental effect on industries of specific changes in final demand in terms of waste generation, water consumption, generation of waste, CO2 emissions or other impacts.

Statistical presentation

The environmental multiplier tables are organized in the following way. Firstly, they contain a reproduction of certain environmental data, which are also found in the Green National Accounts. Secondly, they contain an estimate of some direct effects calculated as the relative share between the same environmental data by industry and and central national accounts variables, typically total output by industry. Finally, the tables contain direct effects (in one industry) and indirect effects (all involved industries) of various types of final demand calculated with an input-output model.

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Statistical processing

This statistics is based on two already published sources, namely the green national accounts and input-output tables. Thus, data was not collected specifically for this statistic. Certain parts of the two sources are reproduced in the tables, but the primary contribution lie in the use of an input-output model that contains both physical environmental data and economic national accounts data in the form of input-output tables. This hybrid model is used in various configurations to calculate so-called indirect (multiplier) effects.

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Users are, in principle, all who are interested in the extent to which different types of demand (consumption, investment, exports) have an impact on the environment (e.g. CO2 emissions, water consumption or waste) and in which industries the direct effect appears and which derived effects appears other industries. The tables thus link environmental issues with aspects of economic development and should therefore be of interest to users working with integrated planning of economic and environmental development.

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Accuracy and reliability

The multipliers are the result of model calculations, which are based on national accounting statistics and input-output tables. In each section, polls and adjustments are made under assumptions, which together mean that the calculation process builds some uncertainty about the figures. At the most detailed level, therefore, one can not necessarily expect the results to be accurate representations of reality. Conclusions from the tables should be drawn with some caution, taking account of the uncertainties that may arise in the various stages of the process.

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Timeliness and punctuality

The tables have so far been published punctually in relation to the pre-announced release date. The multiplier tables, based on the energy accounts, are published for the first time approx. 6 months after the end of the reference year, while the emission multipliers are published in the first version approx. 10 months after the end of the reference year. Final figures are published at the same time as the national accounts become final, approx. 36 months after the end of the reference year.

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The statistics are fully comparable over time. The two source statistics are both consistent over time. Multipliers are calculated at constant prices, which is necessary to get a correct impression of the development in an economic time series. This is not statutory statistics, but to the extent that other countries have produced a similar statistic, the results should be fully comparable, as it is known as internationally known source data and calculation methods.

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Accessibility and clarity

Data is only disseminated in the StatBank under Green National Accounts, and statistics are not reported to international bodies. There are so far no publications related to it.

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