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Accuracy and reliability

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National Accounts, Economic Statistics
Peter Rørmose Jensen
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Environmental Multiplier Tables

The multipliers are the result of model calculations, which are based on national accounting statistics and input-output tables. In each section, polls and adjustments are made under assumptions, which together mean that the calculation process builds some uncertainty about the figures. At the most detailed level, therefore, one can not necessarily expect the results to be accurate representations of reality. Conclusions from the tables should be drawn with some caution, taking account of the uncertainties that may arise in the various stages of the process.

Overall accuracy

There is a certain degree of uncertainty associated with the calculation of the figures, primarily because values are calculated and not observed. There are uncertainties related to the sources used in the national accounts, the assumptions made in the compilation of the national accounts and those made in the compilation of the input-output tables. The national accounts are a compilation of a wide range of microeconomic sources, and in order to establish consistent national accounts, some reconciliation of the figures may be necessary, which may contribute to a certain deviation from the observed data. However, it can be said that the conceptually consistent and over time uniform processing of the sources, however, contributes to a reduction in the uncertainty of the national accounts figures. In particular, the compilation of the primary sources in a single system means that in many cases errors are not revealed, which are thus not reflected in the final national accounts or input-output tables. The transformation from national accounts to input-output tables necessitates some assumptions that are best possible from international recommendations, but which may give some imbalance in the results in some areas.

For the two most recent years (National Account's "preliminary" years), the statistics are calculated using preliminary editions of the input-output tables and may therefore be slightly more uncertain than for the years covered by final input-output tables.

The purpose of the calculations is to give a general impression of environmental and economic contexts and the structural changes that may occur over time. Conclusions, especially in the most detailed areas, should be drawn from these tables with some caution.

Sampling error

Not relevant for these statistics

Non-sampling error

The overall effect of assumptions in the compilation of the input-output tables and the model calculation of the multipliers means that at the most detailed level, expect the results to be subject to uncertainty. Uncertainty can arise in connection with model assumptions, methods, and the data used. Conclusions should be drawn from these tables with some caution.

Quality management

Statistics Denmark follows the recommendations on organisation and management of quality given in the Code of Practice for European Statistics (CoP) and the implementation guidelines given in the Quality Assurance Framework of the European Statistical System (QAF). A Working Group on Quality and a central quality assurance function have been established to continuously carry through control of products and processes.

Quality assurance

Statistics Denmark follows the principles in the Code of Practice for European Statistics (CoP) and uses the Quality Assurance Framework of the European Statistical System (QAF) for the implementation of the principles. This involves continuous decentralized and central control of products and processes based on documentation following international standards. The central quality assurance function reports to the Working Group on Quality. Reports include suggestions for improvement that are assessed, decided and subsequently implemented.

Quality assessment

The quality of the two applied source statistics; input-output tables and the green national accounts is crucial for the quality of the multiplier tables.

Input-output tables are based directly on the national accounts product balance sheet, which is the foundation of the building of the Danish national accounts. An assessment of the reliability of the national accounts figures is sought to be maintained by conducting the reconciliation of the national accounts at a very detailed level, just the core variable GDP is based on both the production and income side. The compilation of the national accounts and the use of data and methods is continuously monitored by the EU. The layout of the input-output tables is based on international recommendations in the United Nations manuals and is fully integrated with the national accounts.

The quality of the Danish national accounts is assessed in the following report: Quality Report, Denmark 2018

Tables from the green national accounts that are included in the compilation of the multiplier statistics have existed for many years. Energy and emissions accounts and have been continuously improved with regard to methods and source data, but it is known that at the most detailed level uncertainty can be found in the data. A project has therefore been initiated, which will improve the quality of these statistics by 2019.

The Danish Energy Accounts has been updated during the spring of 2019. June 20 they were published based partly on new methods for compilation. An effort has been made to keep all time series intact. However, at the most detaled (117 industries) level a few breaks in time series may occur for industries with minor importance in terms of energy use.

The array of multiplier tables adds a dimension of uncertainty to its source statistics, since it is a model calculation based on certain assumptions. The quality is good when it comes to punctuality and audit policy. The first version of the statistics are published within the first year after the end of the reference year and are fully comparable over time. The statistics are considered to be a relevant tool for linking environmental statistics with economic statistics.

Data revision - policy

Statistics Denmark revises published figures in accordance with the Revision Policy for Statistics Denmark. The common procedures and principles of the Revision Policy are for some statistics supplemented by a specific revision practice.

Data revision practice

This is an annual statistics, but as the underlying statistics are updated more than one time a year, new versions of the multiplier tables are also published more than once a year. The figures are revised when the underlying environmental data is revised as well as when the input output tables are revised.

The release dates for preliminary and final figures follow the rhythm of the national accounts. For year T-3, final figures are published, while in recent years T-1 and T-2 will be preliminary figures, which can be revised when the year reaches T-3.