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Labour and Income, Social Statistics
Martin Faris Sawaed Nielsen
+45 39 17 34 98

mfs@dst.dk

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Labour Force Survey (LFS)

The LFS is published quarterly in the Danish press release Nyt fra Danmarks Statistik in the series Quarterly, Theme, European and Year. Statistical estimates are available via Statbank.

There are also subject pages connected to the statistics:

More detailed LFS data is available for purchase via Tailor-made analyses.

It possible to gain access to Micro-data through Statistics Denmark's registers Research Services.

Release calendar

The publication date appears in the release calendar. The date is confirmed in the weeks before.

Release calendar access

The Release Calender can be accessed on our English website: Release Calender.

User access

Statistics are always published at 8:00 a.m. at the day announced in the release calendar. No one outside of Statistics Denmark can access the statistics before they are published.

News release

The Labour Force Survey is published quarterly in News from Statistics Denmark in the series * Quarter *, * Theme *, * European * and furthermore, yearly results are published every spring.

  • The LFS Quarter (kvt.) presents the newest quarterly main figures
  • The LFS European (europæisk) presents comparisons with the other EU countries
  • The LFS Year (år) presents the newest yearly main figures

The Quarter News is published 1.5 months after the end of a quarter. The Theme News is published two months after the end of the quarter and The European News is published about 3.5 months after the end of a quarter. The Year News is published at the same time as the Quarterly News for Q4, 1.5 months after the end of Q4.

Scheduled Releases

Publications

The figures are also published in Statistisk Årbog (Danish version) and Tiårsoversigten (Danish version)

In addition, the following Theme publications based on the LFS are published:

-Helbredsproblemer og arbejdsliv (2003) (Danish version) -De ældre og arbejdsmarkedet (2004) (Danish version) -Køn og arbejdsliv (2004) (Danish version)

On-line database

Since employment and unemployment are now only somewhat affected by the special circumstances caused by COVID-19, the whole COVID-19 period can now be treated more comprehensively in the seasonal adjustment. Therefore, the time series for seasonally adjusted employment, unemployment and persons outside the labor force have been reviewed, in order to improve on the treatment of outliers in the seasonal adjustment. The review of the seasonal models affects the seasonally adjusted figures in the Statbank from 2019q1 onwards.

For both the age group 65-74-year-olds and 75-89-year-olds, they are so far only reported to (and published by) Eurostat, with the exception of the quarterly tables AKU110K and AKU111K and the annual tables AKU110A and AKU111A, which contain data for the 15-4-year-olds. Other tables in the national dissemination via http://www.Statbank.dk contain data for the 15-64-year-olds.

Applicable for table AKU310K: Overtime for employees by status of salary and industry: The data shown in this table for 2021Q1 and 2021Q2 has been imputed based on data covering the period 2019Q4 – 2020Q4 and 2021Q3 – 2021Q4. This imputation was undertaken because respondents in 2021Q1 and 2021Q2 by a setup error only were asked whether they had worked overtime during the reference week, but not whether this overtime was paid or unpaid. The imputation of paid/unpaid overtime has been conducted in two steps. In the first step, data on paid/unpaid overtime is imputed directly from those respondents who have both participated in the Labor Force Survey (LFS) in 2021Q1/2021Q2 and in previous or subsequent quarters have stated that they have had paid/unpaid overtime. Direct imputation is not used if the respondent has changed both industry and occupation. In the second step, hot deck imputation is used to impute missing data on paid/unpaid overtime for the remaining respondents. Imputation is conducted using data from 2019Q4-2020Q4 and 2021Q3-2021Q4.

Applicable for table AKU530K: Full-time equivalents by employment status and sex: Full-time equivalents for ILO-unemployed uses data on whether the ILO-unemployed is seeking part- or fulltime employment. For 2021Q1 and 2021Q2 the data on whether the ILO-unemployed has sought part- or fulltime employment is imputed based on data covering the period 2019Q4 – 2020Q4 and 2021Q3 – 2021Q4. The imputation was necessary because respondents in 2021Q1 and 2021Q2 were only asked whether they had sought work and not whether this work was a part- or fulltime position. Additionally, in 2021Q1 and 2021Q2 the estimate of full-time equivalents for employed individuals does not include the amount of contractual hours worked in any secondary jobs as this data was not available. The imputation of whether ILO-unemployed have sought part- or fulltime employment has been conducted in two steps. In the first step, data on whether the ILO-unemployed have sought part- or fulltime employment is imputed directly from those respondents who have both participated in the Labor Force Survey (LFS) in 2021Q1/2021Q2 as well as in either previous or subsequent quarters and have answered the question on part- or fulltime employment. In the second step, hot deck imputation is used to impute missing data on part- or fulltime employment for the remaining respondents. Imputation is conducted using data from 2019Q4-2020Q4 and 2021Q3-2021Q4.

Quarterly figures in StatBank:

  • AKU100K: Seasonally adjusted labour force status by employment status and time
  • AKU101K: Seasonally adjusted labour force status in percentage by employment status and time
  • AKU110K: Labour force status by employment status, age, sex and time
  • AKU111K: Labour force status in percentage by employment status, age, sex and time
  • AKU120K: Labour force status by employment status, region and time
  • AKU121K: Labour force status in percentage by employment status, region and time
  • AKU210K: Employed by professional status, age, sex and time
  • AKU220K: Employed (in thousands) by industry (DB07 10-grouping), region, sex and time
  • AKU230K: Employed (in thousands) by region, age, sex and time
  • AKU240K: Employed (in thousands) by hours of work, age, sex and time
  • AKU250K: Employed (in thousands) by desired working hours, age, sex and time
  • AKU310K: Overtime for employees by status of salary, industry (DB07 10-grouping) and time
  • AKU510K: ILO-unemployment composition by status for unemployment, sex and time
  • AKU520K: Gross unemployment by type of benefits, employment status and time
  • AKU530K: Full-time equivalents by employment status, sex and time

Yearly figures:

  • AKU110A: Labour force status by employment status, age, sex and time
  • AKU111A: Labour force status in percentage by employment status, age, sex and time
  • AKU130A: Labour force status by employment status, level of education and time
  • AKU131A: Labour force status in percentage by employment status, level of education and time
  • AKU210A: Employed by professional status, age, sex and time
  • AKU260A: Employed by working time arrangement, age, sex and time
  • AKU270A: Employed by atypical working times, frequency, age, sex and time
  • AKU280A: Employed with work at home by frequency, age, sex and time
  • AKU320A: Employees by permanency of the job, age, sex and time
  • AKU330A: Employees by working houres, age, sex and time
  • AKU340A: Employees by working houres, industry (DB07) and time
  • AKU410A: Average weekly hours of work in main job by hours of work, age, sex and time
  • AKU420A: Average weekly hours of work in main job by hours of work, industry (DB07) and time
  • AKU610A: Persons outside the labour force by self-percepted status, sex and time

Micro-data access

Data are based on individuals, and contain both survey and register variables.

It possible to gain access to Micro-data through Statistics Denmark's registers Research Services.

Other

The definitions in the LFS comply with the guidelines as laid down by the ILO, the international labour market organization of the UN. The operationalization of the concepts is made by Eurostat, who coordinates the common European Labour Force Survey. The operationalization is hereby recommended by ILO and Eurostat. Data from the quarterly LFS is each quarter delivered to Eurostat and is published on Eurostat database. OECD and ILO collect their data mainly from Eurostat.

In the second quarter of each year questions on undeclared work is added to the LFS and data is delivered to National Accounts.

Find more information on the following subject pages:

-Labour force participation. -Employment. -Unemployment.

Read more about Documentation.

From September 2013 the LFS is also published monthly The Monthly Labour Force Survey (LFS).

The Labour Force Survey can be supplemented with additional questions, so-called “EU modules”. The main focus of the ad hoc modules changes yearly, but at the same time the construction “rotates” meaning that the same subjects are repeated regularly. In Denmark, all respondents participating in the survey during the second quarter are being asked the questions from the ad hoc modules. From 2016 the respondents participate for only one out of four panels and now each quarter.

How can one use the EU modules?

If your organization or firm is interested in the subjects from the ad hoc modules, it is possible to:

  • Gain access to data from already completed EU modules
  • Link additional questions to forthcoming EU modules
  • Get involved in the development of EU modules

For an overview of the EU modules: EU modules 1999-2025(Danish version).

It is possible to buy more detailed LFS data: Tailor-made analyses.

It possible to gain access to Micro-data through Statistics Denmark' registers: Research Services.

Confidentiality - policy

The labour Force survey follows the guidelines of the Data Confidentiality Policy at Statistics Denmark. Data Confidentiality Policy.

Statistics Denmark has described some guidelines for the use of data from the LFS. The purpose is to assure quality in the analysis based on the LFS and furthermore inform external users of the LFS on e.g. sampling errors. It is possible to achieve knowledge about publishing limits on yearly and quarterly basis.

  • Quarterly figures under 4.000 persons (weighted figures) is not published
  • Quarterly figures between 4.000-7.000 persons (weighted figures) can be published with caution that figures are subject to some uncertainty.
  • Annual figures under 2.000 persons (weighted figures) is not published
  • Annual figures between 2.000 – 4.000 persons (weighted figures) can be published with caution that figures are subject to some uncertainty.

Figures in the group that can be published subject to caution should only be published in special cases. Statistics Denmark recommends that this is discussed before figures are published with employees from the Labour Force Survey.

For further information:

Confidentiality - data treatment

The labour Force survey follows the guidelines of the Data Confidentiality Policy at Statistics Denmark: Data Confidentiality Policy.

Statistics Denmark has described some guidelines for the use of data from the LFS. The purpose is to assure quality in the analysis based on the LFS and furthermore inform external users of the LFS on e.g. sampling errors. It is possible to achieve knowledge about publishing limits on yearly and quarterly basis.

Documentation on methodology

The incoming results from the Labour Force Survey are weighted before publishing the results for the entire population. The method of weighting has been revised several times over the years, which can influence the development in the figures of employment and unemployment at the aggregate level, as well as the developments of figures for subgroups.

In 2022q1, a new stratification was introduced in the LFS. Register data on employment and register unemployment are utilized to a greater extent, in order to obtain a greater number of responses in some of the groups that suffer from low response rates. For starters, the population is divided into four groups: 1) in stable employment, 2) in registered unemployment, 3) neither in stable employment nor registered unemployment and 4) persons aged 75 to 89. In addition, groups 1 and 3 are divided into the age groups 15-29, 30-64 and 65-74. This results in eight different strata, which are used in the sample selection from 2022q1 onwards. As the LFS consists of four panels, each appearing for six quarters, there will be a gradual implementation of the new stratification until 2023q2.

From January 1st 2021 the LFS is adapted to a new EU framework regulation. Until the year 2020 the LFS has been collected at the individual level for 15-74-year-olds. From 2021 the population has changed to also include the age group from 75-89 years. On a quarterly basis the sample has thus increased from 34,320 people to 36,020 people. The weighting scheme has also been changed to also include the age group 75-89 years.

One should be aware of four previous revisions in the method of weighting: 2003, 2007, 2011 and 2015. In connection with the method of weighting in 2011, data going back to 2007 were revised. The present method of weighting was implemented in Q3 2015 and the method now includes a weighting method based on the panels. The new weighting method led to marginal changes in the data , and therefore the data was not revised back in time.

The actual effect of the latest revision in the method of weighting is described in the paper below. Here you can read about in which way the revision in the method of weighting has influenced the level of employment in general and additional the size of subgroups (i.e. age groups, part-time and fulltime employees, educational groups and employed/self-employed persons). Paper on the 2011 weighting-method (practically) (Danish version).

The theoretical considerations behind the changes in the method of weighting as well as the gains the revisions have led to on the LFS, are described in the following document. Here one can read about the background and the motivation for the revisions. Among other things, the revisions has led to a more precise age distinction and improved use of help information from several registers. Paper on the 2011 weighting-method (theoretically) (Danish version).

Prior to 2007 a method implemented in 2003 was used. This revision implemented a correction where sex is corrected according to secondary age groups. At the same time it is described how the register of unemployment (CRAM) was used to divide the LFS-unemployed in the survey. Paper on the 2003 weighting-method (Danish version).

Other information on methods in LFS.

Quality documentation

Results from the quality evaluation of products and selected processes are available in detail for each statistics and in summary reports for the Working Group on Quality.