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Statistical processing

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External Economy, International Trade in Service.
Selma Mustafic Mulalic
+45 3917 3664

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International Trade in Services

Data is collected every month. The data is screened for obvious and likely errors. The completeness of the reports is checked. The data is used for compiling the statistics through a process of grossing up for the trade not covered. The statistics is accordingly to be considered to completely cover the Danish foreign trade in services.

Source data

The most important source of the statistics is Survey on international trade in services, a combination of monthly reports from approx. 390 firms and annual reports from approx. 1300 firms. The statistical population for Survey on international trade in services is assumed to consist of approx. 40.000 units (cvr. numbers), which according to different assumptions are considered to be covering the total foreign trade in services. Supplementary information from other sources on travel as well as on other items is used. Most important source for travel revenues is the interviews with foreign travelers in Denmark which is carried out in cooperation with VisitDenmark. Travel expenditure is compiled using different information on consumption by Danes abroad, number of nights abroad, and transport abroad from statistics from other countries. Information on public services is provided through statistics on public finance. Private consumers import of electronic services from abroad is estimated on data derived from the Mini One Stop Shop (MOSS) VAT system. The MOSS system captures sales of electronically delivered services to non-taxable Danish residents. This data is supplemented with an estimate of gambling services based on the statement of income from betting, lotteries and casino business from the Danish gaming authorities. Other sources are estimates of illegal trade across the border (find more information on the method on Major revision of national accounts).

Frequency of data collection

Data is collected monthly and annually for the main source i.e. Survey on international trade in services. For other sources different frequencies can occur.

Data collection

Data is collected mostly electronically through the system IDEP.

Data validation

Data is compared with earlier reported data. If relevant, data is also compared with reports to other statistics.

Data compilation

Data is grossed up to the total population, assumed to consist of about 40.000 units. The grossing-up routine is dynamic as the weights are recalculated when new data are available. The 390 monthly reporters are allotted with weight 1, while the 1300 annual reporters are allotted with weights larger than 1 (or 1). The final weights are based on the design weights, which are calibrated according to some stratum totals.


In the quarterly statistics adjustment for seasonality is performed. All service groups' trade is divided between receipts and expenditure, as well as the EU and the rest of the world outside the EU. These series as well as the selected countries' trade by receipts and expenditure are seasonally adjusted directly. Other levels are calculated based on this (indirect seasonal adjustment). Data is seasonally adjusted using JDemetra+ with fixed model examined every two years. There will be adjusted for Easter, trading days and leap years if these effects are significant. There is no special adaptation of the annual figures, and there can be discrepancies between actual and seasonally adjusted figures annually. The seasonally adjusted figures are divided into service groups and by geography. The totals in the two reports are consistent.